Bone Spurs

Are abnormal pieces of bone that grow on top of normal spine bone as a result of aging and the attempt of the body to increase the strength of bone that is used the most.  As a result, the bone spurs can cause pain by friction, interfering with normal joints of the spine, or by impinging on nearby nerves.

Bulging Disc

A bulging disc is a condition related to the spine, usually the lower back, occurring when a disc bulges outside the space it should normally occupy through a crevice in the spine.

Burst Fracture

Is a type of severe fracture of a spinal vertebrae.

Canal or Central Stenosis

Is a specific type of Spinal Stenosis.

Compression Fracture

Is a milder type of vertebral body fracture.

Degenerative Disc

Degenerative disc disease is a term used to describe the normal changes in your spinal discs as you age. Disc degeneration is a natural part of aging and over time all people will exhibit changes in their discs consistent with a greater or lesser degree of degeneration.

Degenerative Joint

Is a joint that underwent wear and tear, leading to friction between two bony surfaces as a result of wearing of the intervening cartilage.  This can happen in the back part of the spine.

Disc Protrusion or Prolapse

These are various degrees of disc herniation.

Facet Arthritis

The facet joints are the joint structures that connect the vertebrae to one another.
Facet disease occurs when there is degeneration of the facet joint. With age related natural wear and tear of the spine, facet disease develops as the spinal discs become thinner, placing more stress on the facet joints. The increased stress causes inflammation and formation of bone spurs leading to arthritis of the facet joint, or facet syndrome.

Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

Is a complex syndrome characterized by continued pain after multiple back fusion surgeries.

Foraminal Stenosis

Quite similar to spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis primarily affects one or more areas of your spine. Foraminal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal foramen, the hole through which passes a spinal nerve as it exits the spine. Because the foramen is a relatively small area, anything affecting that area can cause foraminal stenosis and pinch the nerves inside the foramen.

Herniated Disc

A herniated disc is sometimes referred to as a slipped disc or a ruptured disc. It is often the result of
an injury or trauma to the spine. This may cause tiny tears or cracks in the hard outer layer of the disc. When this happens, the gel inside the disc can be forced out through the tears or cracks in the outer layer of the disc.

Low Back Pain

Refers to the chronic and persistent pain in the low back, lasting for more than 2 weeks.

Leg Pain

Pain that mainly radiates or throbs in the thigh, lower leg or foot.  This pain can be associated with numbness or pins and needle sensations, or it can be isolated to sharp or dull pain.

Neck and Shoulder Pain

Refers to chronic pain in the back of the neck or upper back area, sometimes radiating to the shoulder area on either side, and lasting for more than 2 weeks.

Muscle Spasm

Is the acute or chronic contraction of muscle, leading to sharp or throbbing pain in the neck or back.

Pinched Nerve

A pinched nerve occurs when too much pressure is applied to a nerve by surrounding tissues such as bone spurs, disc herniation and ligaments. Symptoms include numbness, “pins and needles” or burning sensations, and pain radiating outward from the injured area.

Ruptured Disc

A severe form of disc herniation, usually involving free fragments of disc displaced on impinging on nearly nerves.


Is a condition that refers to pain radiating down the leg because of impingement or pinching of one of the small nerves that form the big sciatic nerve that control all muscles of the leg.


Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that occurs most often during the growth spurt just before puberty.

Slipped Disc

Is a form of disc herniation.

Slipped Vertebrae

Also called Spondylolisthesis, is the abnormal alignment of one spinal vertebrae over another, usually from a congenital defect in the elements that align the spinal vertebrae.  This condition can cause chronic low back pain or leg pain or both.

Spine Arthritis

Arthritis can affect any part of the body, even the spine. It occurs when the cartilage in the joints is worn down as a result of wear and tear, aging, injury or misuse.
A bone spur can cause wear and tear or pain if it presses or rubs on other bones or soft tissues such as ligaments, tendons, or nerves in the body.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one or more areas in your spine most often in your upper or lower back. This narrowing can put pressure on your spinal cord or on the nerves that branch out from the compressed areas. Symptoms might appear gradually or not at all. They include pain in your neck or back, numbness, weakness or pain in your arms or legs, and foot problems.

Spinal Cord Tumors

Are tumors that originates from the spinal cord, spinal nerves, or the covering of the spinal cord and nerves, such as schwannomas and neurofibromas.

Spinal or Vertebral Tumors

Are tumors originating within the bony elements of the spine, such as the vertebral body.  These tumors can be benign and asymptomatic, or can be benign but progressively growing, often leading to nerve or spinal cord compression or spinal fractures, or can be cancerous originating from the spinal bones or originating from other areas of the body and traveling through the blood stream to the spine.


Is the progressive degeneration of bony and ligamentous spinal elements, leading to multiple manifestations, such as degenerative joint, bone spurs, and spinal stenosis.


Is the abnormal alignment of one spinal vertebrae over another, usually from a congenital defect in the elements that align the spinal vertebrae.  This condition can cause chronic low back pain or leg pain or both.

Vertebral Body Fractures

Are fractures involving the front (anterior) part of the vertebrae of the spine.