Primary Brain Tumor

A tumor that originates from brain cells or from the cells of the covering of the brain (Meninges).  These tumors can be benign, such as Meningiomas, or malignant and cancerous, such as Glioblastoma Multiforme.


Metastatic Brain Tumor

A cancerous tumor that originates somewhere else in the body (lung, breast, …) and few cells break off into the blood stream and invade and grow in the brain.


Pituitary Tumor

A Tumor that originates within the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain behind the nasal sinuses (sphenoid sinus).  These tumors can secrete different types of hormones, and can impinge on the vision (optic) nerves.  When surgery is necessary to remove the tumor, surgery can often be achieved through the nose and not through the head.



Is a type of benign brain tumor that grows from the outer covering of the brain into the brain tissue.  Most of these tumors grow slowly over a period of years and many do not cause symptoms unless they become very large.


Acoustic Neuroma

Also called Vestibular Schwannoma, is a benign tumor that originates from the hearing and balance cranial nerve behind the ear.  These tumors can grow into the brain and impinge on the lower part of the brain called the brainstem and cerebellum.


Trigeminal Neuralgia

Is a condition characterized by facial pain, usually on one side of the face.  The pain can last for years, and can encompass the entire half of the face, or just area above or below the eye, or cause eye pain as well.  There are many treatments for this condition nowadays, ranging from non-invasive procedures (such as stereotactic radiosurgery) to needle injection, to brain surgery.


Hemifacial Spasm

Is a condition characterized by constant or intermittent spasms involving one side of the face, usually lasting for months or years.  This condition can be often treated by a type of brain surgery called microvascular decompression.


Blunt or Penetrating Head Trauma

Is trauma to the head and brain involving a sharp object, such as a gunshot or knife stab wound, or blunt trauma, such as a car accident.


Closed Head Injury

Is injury to the brain without obvious open wounds in the head.  This can range from a mild concussion, to severe brain trauma and brain bleeds.


Skull Fractures

Fracture of any part of the skull bones.  Some of these fractures are hairline fractures and some are severely displaced.


Cerebral Aneurysm

Is a bulge or ballooning of part of a blood vessel, which can continue to enlarge and eventually rupture leading to bleeding into the brain tissue.  Majority of aneurysms are silent or asymptomatic until they rupture, and if they do they can cause severe brain trauma and death.


Vascular Malformations

Abnormal blood vessels in the brain, often times are prone to bleeding into brain tissue.  Most of these malformations are congenital and exist since birth.


Arteriovenous Malformation

Is the most dangerous type of vascular malformations, involving abnormal arteries and veins.


Cavernous Malformation or Cavernoma

Is a less dangerous form of vascular malformations, which can cause small but repetitive bleeding into brain. They range from asymptomatic lesions that do not require treatment or surgery, to ones that cause multiple episodes of bleeding and require surgical resection.


Epilepsy Surgery

Surgery aimed at treating a specific type of epilepsy or chronic seizures.  These surgeries range from ones in the neck involving the Vagus nerve, to brain surgery aimed at removing the abnormal part of the brain causing the seizure.